The Notes In Between

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167 Comments

  • Rod

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thanks Griff. Brilliant and very instructive, as always.

    • PAUL D.

      Reply Reply July 13, 2017

      this is the first run i learned. do re me! all across the fret board. i was a mama cass party and Niel Young was there. he was listening to me play my leads. he laughed and tought me this scale modes i was really never a Blues guitar player in the 60’s. i have songs that i use this pattern with. i bar the 10th fret and use my other finger to do the run. this way i’m not all over the fret board on a solo. then i just use that a few timed. i like the way you mixed it up, and i have used box 1 and this style together. sounds differant from blues, but does cut the cake. At least you did not bend over with your Greek joke, lol! thanks Grifff.

      • David

        Reply Reply October 15, 2020

        Hi Griff really enjoy your lessons. I have been trying to increase my speed when soloing but very little progress,any thoughts on what might help. I’m not trying to be super crazy fast but do need to increase speed on some licks. Also, I know this may sound rudimentary but for years I played without a pick and now I’m using a pick daily but not sure I’m holding it correctly etc. any advice? Thank You. David

    • pablo

      Reply Reply July 14, 2017

      Griff, you have given me many lessons, but this one opened up a whole lot of fun progressive melodies. great stuff

    • Rodney Deschenes

      Reply Reply July 15, 2017

      In eighteen minutes u unveiled a mystery .so cool can’t wait the the next part don’t get a big head but u are an amazing teacher thanks so much

    • Jd

      Reply Reply July 23, 2017

      Very Cool.

    • Dana

      Reply Reply July 25, 2017

      Thank you Griff, for making clear the difference between modes and the pentatonic boxes! And the difference between the Major scale and the Pentatonic scale. Great video!

    • PAUL

      Reply Reply March 8, 2019

      PRTTEY COOL. LEARNED THIS WHEN I WAS 13 TAKING CLASICL GUITAR!
      REALY HELPS TO KNOW THIS. VERY ROCK SOUNDING AND CAN BE A BIT BLUESY.

    • John

      Reply Reply March 10, 2019

      Great – really informative and clear

    • Charlie Montagu

      Reply Reply March 11, 2019

      Hi Griff love these types of major scales, especially the dorian mode and besides the blues Carlos Santana comes to mind. I love Latino music and blues music both to me are equal the greatest music ever written. Keep up the good work.

    • John l Burford

      Reply Reply March 22, 2020

      your right the more I watch the more I understand. but I wondering when playing gospel music the cords changes a lot can you still play
      different scales.

    • lawrence

      Reply Reply March 24, 2020

      Thank you,They sound great

    • Jim King

      Reply Reply July 15, 2020

      I’ve been curious about the modes for quite awhile. First, i’ll definitely be watching the video again (and again!) and second, that noodling got pretty cool at the end. Thanks!

    • Dave

      Reply Reply January 23, 2021

      I have been struggling trying to understand Modes . This with out question has helped me more than other. Thanks very helpful .

    • Louie

      Reply Reply June 1, 2021

      Thanks very informative and as usual, presented in an easy to understand manner👍

    • Barry Shaver

      Reply Reply December 22, 2021

      Griff,
      You are the bomb. Thanks for clearing years worth of crusty cobwebs in a few moments. Maybe I’m just ready now. Thanks again Griff

    • Frank O'Connor

      Reply Reply December 23, 2021

      Thanks Griff.

      I am understanding modes better now. I now see where to put in thr\e whole steps and the half sets.I always struggled to remember. It’s like a phone #

      Frank

    • Mike g

      Reply Reply December 23, 2021

      Hey, do you know how they separate the men from the boys in Greece ? With a crowbar! Couldn’t help myself

  • Pete Schmidt

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thanks Griff, this is something I have wanted to get into my scales practice folder for some time now. You were on point that pentatonic scales leave you hanging in some songs as people like Garcia for instance are playing outside of them. I heard the Spanish? scale mentioned with him this week. Wondering what that is……?

  • Steve Walker

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thanks Griff,
    Modes have always been a topic I assumed I couldn’t understand. After that video I think I can. I’m a long ways from home now and a year or so from picking up a guitar again but if this still posts when I get home I’m going to work on it. SW

    • BignJames

      Reply Reply July 15, 2017

      Could be a “harmonic minor”? Try sharping the 7th.

      • BignJames

        Reply Reply July 15, 2017

        Oops, reply was for Peter.

  • Curtis

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Finally a clear, concise and uncomplicated explanation!

    • Tom Hopsicker

      Reply Reply July 13, 2017

      I agree.

  • Telypaul

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Hi Griff, Possibly one of the best explanations of modes I have come across, As always it is still a bit difficult to comprehend and put into practice, but your jam demo is a great help I think. maybe when you get to tone centres it will become even more clear (LOL). Great work thanks again.

  • Glenn_Lego

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    What you might call “Simply wonderful and Wonderfully simple?”😁

  • Peter Martelly

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thank you! Finally! Great approach to this topic.

  • cowboy

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    really liked the video…it’s logical and informative approach makes sense…and very usable and I’m one for the KISS principle…later.

    cowboy

  • Tim

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thank you, Griff. Finally, an introduction to modal playing delivered with clarity and precision–unlike all the other aggravating modal discussions on YouTube that are apparently intended for an audience composed of Steve Vais and Eric Johnsons. I understand the basic shifts in the configuration of the major scale. What I’ve not yet been able to figure out is probably obvious to others, but not to me. In short, what the hell key are we in? It looks as though you’re about to address that, and I look forward to the next video. Thanks again.

  • Ken

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Hi Griff

    I Have tried to understand this concept by starting on the relative notes of the G only major scale in one position which to me didnt make much sense
    this has turned out to be one great lesson your explanation has made it easy to understand thanks so much for the time and effort you put in presenting
    this mini lesson.

  • Lloyd Hanson

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    This is a video that would go very well with another post, “Read this 7 times, really.”
    Thanks!

  • Terence Jones

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Fantastic clear concise explanation Griff as always. Looking forward to the video about how to apply the modes in a musical situation.

  • Gary Mirando

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thanks, Griff. This explanation of modes was clear and very helpful.

  • Joyce Larson

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thank you Griff! Very helpful!

  • Gerry Armstrong

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thanks Griff. I have looked the Modes in the past but had trouble understanding how to use them. I will try again maybe your explanation and approach will be a little easier.

    Very helpful

  • Joyce Larson

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    I can’t open the TAB for the Modes, plug-in is blocked! Help?

  • Mark a Wales uk

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Cheers Griff
    For the lesson need a break now heads full 🤔🙄🤔

  • Ed Fatzinger

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Ohh! Thanks a lot – I’ve been looking forward to someone explaining modes, tonal centers, and how to find and use them. You’ve really come thru on this one, Griff. Thanks a lot.

  • Peter Grimwood

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    The absolute best ever explanation of modes. Brillant teacher. Looking forward to the following videos.

  • Pat Matthews

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thank-you for sharing.

  • John

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thanks Griff, Good stuff. I bock my noodling hand in a bicycle accident so I can now spend the time catching up on all your great lessons in theory. Thanks again, John

  • Jeff

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Great lesson. I have your “Theory” course and this really puts the modes into a usable (ie.. Learnable) context for me. I have to say that I enjoyed the sound
    of your play out. It’s topped the video of Golem reading trump tweets on Stephen Colbert last night. Still laughing about that!!!

    Old and slow but learning from you everyday.

  • dale

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Great lesson Griff, picked up on first listen. Sure to listen several more times..

    Thanks……..

  • frank taylor

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    thanks for the info about modes what i have learned from you has made modes much easier to understand each step up the scale is another mode i never spo tted that beforei am looking foreward to more lessons which you make very clear you are a good teacher thanks frank taylor

  • Jim

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    FANTASTIC! Wow! As someone earlier said, “FINALLY!” As someone earlier said, “BEST EXPLANATION OF MODES (on Guitar) EVER!”
    …and I keep thinking for FREE?! My first “teacher” of modes told me, “write out the scale and start it on each successive note. Those are the modes.” And I paid $50 for that! Serious thanks for this and whatever’s coming.

  • willem jacobs

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    As I always said you are a honest teacher Griff.

  • Paul

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    I like the modes video but I am confused
    I was under the impression that when you play the Dorian mode the third note is flated. Likewise when you play the mixolydian the seventh note is flatted.
    Can you explain this to me.
    Thank you in advance
    Paul

  • Doug

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Thanks Griff,

    Great stuff but a bit over the top. I can see or hear where the Mixalodian would fit with pentatonic blues. Look forward to your next video.

    Doug

  • Sonny

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Griff, this lesson was very timely for me. My teacher has just started teaching me about Diatonic Scales, only we started with the key of C.

    • Scotty R

      Reply Reply July 14, 2017

      I’m in the same boat… very timely as I too asm just starting to learn this stuff. Also started in key of C which was great.

  • Poppa Madison

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    I think one of the things that makes the learning process daunting is the continued use of hackneyed “non-English” names for modes and anything which smacks of double entendre. When one has to keep double or triple interpreting terminology words just to “get to the point” it is just another hurdle to overcome in ones thinking process. Playing music well, I would assert comes from having developed an ability to ignore the un-necessary(hurdles to learning) and to be able to rapidly, nay, instantly, get to the point in interpreting and reading a score. I would put it this way. For me, the difficulty in trying to learn to read, has always been the continued “burden in the back of my mind” about ALL that I have to interpret before I get to the point of trying to read it. Which key, which key chords, which mode, which note name, which guitar position, which cage fingering, which technique, which style, which note emphasis, which kind of emotive ambience to try and create, then to have to memorise the whole piece…….Wow ! “C’est tres formidable” !
    Skilled players appear to have got to the point of being able to instantly bypass all of those considerations and “Get to the point of playing, with or without music in front of them”. When one thinks about it, that is indeed a remarkable achievement !
    I think it’s about time that the KISS (Keep it simple stupid!) principle was applied to music and music learning. Instead of Dorian, Myxolidian (which to me always makes me think of Myxomatosis, the rabbit-killing virus, why not simply use “Mode 1, Mode 2, Mode 3″ etc. and, instead of
    Breve, Crotchet, semiquaver, demi semiquaver, why not simply, ” 4″ (whole) ” 1 ” (Single) , “1/2” (half), “1/4” (quarter), “1/8” (Eighth) , “1/16” (Sixteenth) etc ?
    The same goes for having to use Italian for music management and adaptation. I mean why keep clinging to Adagio, Poco a Poco, Andante, Sforzando, or Forte, whatever ? The list of Italian terms is mind-boggling. Faster, Louder, Slower, As before, Gently, Quietly, Subdued, all make instant sense to me. Churches internationally gave up using Latin ages ago. Perhaps the Pontiff and his Roman enclave still cling to using it? English is the new language of music to my way of thinking. Surely, there is enough to boggle the mind in learning music anyway, without the need for including those kind of additional language-learning stumbling blocks. The “snobbery” of knowing a glut of foreign language terminology is not what needs to be adopted in learning, it is how to be able to bottomline do what the whole aim of the game is, which is to be able to look at music, instantly understand and interpret it, and to play it, while putting into it one’s own mood and ambience interpretation of it which comes from the heart.

    So why keep clinging to having to learn a new language on top of the language of music itself, then interpret it back into English, then give it a value?
    Making learning easier is all about simplifying terminology so that one’s native tongue is best accomodated into the learning process. I say that removing as many shackles and obstacles to learning as possible is perhaps one of the best teaching aids that can go towards removing the otherwise trepidation involved in the learning process.

    Think about other fields of science for example…the species and genus world of plants and animals………….Botanicus Californius Succulentus …….if it did exist, might just be California Cactus ! Anthropodicus Erectus Homo Sapiens if that exists for me would be better learned simply as “Human”.
    If there were only those two things to learn, then clinging to the Latin would not be such a hurdle, compared to having to learn a Bible of Latin Names so as to be able to re-define everything in English.
    So much simpler to learn and remember everything in the vernacular, rather than having to go through a double or triple interpretation process in the mind to actually say and learn what something ACTUALLY IS then apply it.

    Or maybe it’s just me who is my own worst enemy in all of this ? LOL !

    Poppa

    • Griff

      Reply Reply July 13, 2017

      I think you make an EXCELLENT point, that it is very much like a new language and the “barrier of entry,” as I like to call it, can be fairly high for some people.

      I try my best to use nomenclature that is as easy to understand as possible, while still giving you a way to translate with the outside world. You can certainly call a Dorian mode, “mode 2,” and use it in your own playing that way. But it will make talking with other musicians a challenge.

      I suppose it’s like many disciplines, they have their own language. Golfers use words, phrases, and expressions between themselves that I can’t understand in the slightest because I don’t golf. On the other hand it has the benefit of an instant bond between them when they meet for the first time.

      So while it may take some time and effort, learning the language of music and the terminology to get you through to connect with other musicians is worth the price of admission.

      • Anthony Ingoglia

        Reply Reply June 3, 2020

        Am I correct in saying if you wanted to play just a ONE octave mode, you could stay in the first BOX and just start from the second note and end on the ninth. Then 3rd to the 10th etc. Would not that be a much easier way to explain modes?. Then when noodling just emphasizes the note of what ever new chord was played. I understand moving up the fretboard and starting on string 6 gives you 2 octaves, the the EXPLANATION would be so simple. I love a response.

  • Brian Burke

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Last year I was playing in an adult band associated with the School of Rock in our town. We’re a bunch of intermediate players. Our set included two Grateful Dead songs and so I had to learn a couple of Jerry G leads, and I decided to learn them note for note. Took a while. And I came to learn that Jerry did not confine himself to the pentatonics. In fact what clinched the sound and made it Jerry were the “in between” notes. I just concluded that he used the full major scale. Never thought about modes, which had always seemed academic to me. Then your video today, Griff. It all went click. Thanks for what you do. Just great. Brian Burke

  • Poppa Madison

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Poppa Madison
    Reply Reply

    I think one of the things that makes the learning process daunting is the continued use of hackneyed “non-English” names for modes and anything which smacks of double entendre. When one has to keep double or triple interpreting terminology words just to “get to the point” it is just another hurdle to overcome in ones thinking process. Playing music well, I would assert comes from having developed an ability to ignore the un-necessary(hurdles to learning) and to be able to rapidly, nay, instantly, get to the point in interpreting and reading a score. I would put it this way. For me, the difficulty in trying to learn to read, has always been the continued “burden in the back of my mind” about ALL that I have to interpret before I get to the point of trying to read it. Which key, which key chords, which mode, which note name, which guitar position, which cage fingering, which technique, which style, which note emphasis, which kind of emotive ambience to try and create, then to have to memorise the whole piece…….Wow ! “C’est tres formidable” !
    Skilled players appear to have got to the point of being able to instantly bypass all of those considerations and “Get to the point of playing, with or without music in front of them”. When one thinks about it, that is indeed a remarkable achievement !
    I think it’s about time that the KISS (Keep it simple stupid!) principle was applied to music and music learning. Instead of Dorian, Myxolidian (which to me always makes me think of Myxomatosis, the rabbit-killing virus, why not simply use “Mode 1, Mode 2, Mode 3″ etc. and, instead of
    Breve, Crotchet, semiquaver, demi semiquaver, why not simply, ” 4″ (whole) ” 1 ” (Single) , “1/2” (half), “1/4” (quarter), “1/8” (Eighth) , “1/16” (Sixteenth) etc ?
    The same goes for having to use Italian for music management and adaptation. I mean why keep clinging to Adagio, Poco a Poco, Andante, Sforzando, or Forte, whatever ? The list of Italian terms is mind-boggling. Faster, Louder, Slower, As before, Gently, Quietly, Subdued, all make instant sense to me. Churches internationally gave up using Latin ages ago. Perhaps the Pontiff and his Roman enclave still cling to using it? English is the new language of music to my way of thinking. Surely, there is enough to boggle the mind in learning music anyway, without the need for including those kind of additional language-learning stumbling blocks. The “snobbery” of knowing a glut of foreign language terminology is not what needs to be adopted in learning, it is how to be able to bottomline do what the whole aim of the game is, which is to be able to look at music, instantly understand and interpret it, and to play it, while putting into it one’s own mood and ambience interpretation of it which comes from the heart.

    So why keep clinging to having to learn a new language on top of the language of music itself, then interpret it back into English, then give it a value?
    Making learning easier is all about simplifying terminology so that one’s native tongue is best accomodated into the learning process. I say that removing as many shackles and obstacles to learning as possible is perhaps one of the best teaching aids that can go towards removing the otherwise trepidation involved in the learning process.

    Think about other fields of science for example…the species and genus world of plants and animals………….Botanicus Californius Succulentus …….if it did exist, might just be California Cactus ! Anthropodicus Erectus Homo Sapiens if that exists for me would be better learned simply as “Human”.
    If there were only those two things to learn, then clinging to the Latin would not be such a hurdle, compared to having to learn a Bible of Latin Names so as to be able to re-define everything in English.
    So much simpler to learn and remember everything in the vernacular, rather than having to go through a double or triple interpretation process in the mind to actually say and learn what something ACTUALLY IS then apply it.

    Or maybe it’s just me who is my own worst enemy in all of this ? LOL !

    Poppa

    • Anthony Ingoglia

      Reply Reply June 3, 2020

      The problem with the genus and species example you gave is a YELLOW SPOTTED FLOUNDER in China could be a completely Different species than what we call a yellow spotted flounder here in the USA. In reality, those m8x ups happened all the time. Many countries have common black birds but when compared they are very different. Plus whose language becomes the universal language for naming. Latin was chosen for biology. It word well.

  • bob

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    Poppa……You make a great point……and I actually understood your meaning.

    Griff…we need a answer to Poppa’s question and without doubt your THE MAN to answer this question.

    Love your video’s………………………………..your humble student Bob

  • DaveyJoe

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    I love this stuff Griff! I’m “all ears”. (Ha Ha)

  • Tom Hopsicker

    Reply Reply July 13, 2017

    I’m hoping Griff’s explanation on how to put this into practice is just as easy to understand.

    • Jan

      Reply Reply July 14, 2017

      Bingo!

  • Jack

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Hi, Griff.

    This one is an absolute GEM. Thanks for making it.
    It’s VERY helpful.

  • JDominique

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    In my view, this video offers a new dimension to the knowledge of a blues player. ,even about jazz music. Hope some day you will be able to provide some lessons utilizing some of this. Excellent addition. Thank you so much .

  • Benyaw

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Thanks again…weird stuff to my ears..but cool

  • Chas

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Hi Griff,

    This is one of the best guitar lesson ever (if not the best)
    I can’t wait for the next video.
    I just want to thank you for this and all the other quality videos
    you have given us over the years. THANK YOU.

    Chas

  • Dave Hawnt

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Poppa… you got it all wrong! The main reason why many musical terms are in latin is because Latin is a ‘dead’ language! On the whole latin is not being progressed as time passes; therefore it is a static base-form that everyone, of whatever nationality or spoken language can understand. It IS a world language!

    Try counting in Latin… “unum”, “duo”, “tres” i.e. one, two, three… now, anyone from what ever country and from what ever language will understand how to count one, two, three just by learning the rudimentary latin ”world’ language. Also… because Latin is not being developed (i.e. it’s a dead language), it will still be the same in a thousand years from now. Who knows how English, French, German and Americanize will have strayed in that time. It’s the same reason that many Latin terms are used in engineering and architecture… so everybody in the world can understand what is being said and not only those that speak english.

    Modern languages and grammar have transformed a hell of a lot since the advent of morse code, data and texting. Listen to a bunch of teenagers or hip-hop dudes speaking… those of us from an older generation can hardly understand a damn word they are saying (a blessing in disguise, eh! :)) but they will claim that they are speaking english! …all 4nw, bcnu sn. (translation = “That’s all for now, be seeing you soon”)

  • Dave Hawnt

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Oh yeah, Griff’s ‘modes’ lesson… brilliant. I have listened to dozens of music teachers over the years try to explain what modes are… most have failed miserably. Griff has illuminated an often rendered dark subject. It is amazing that just by starting a phrase on a different scale note changes it’s charactor… it’s all in the sound of the whole/half note combinations being moved me thinks! cul… 🙂

  • Ahmed Azeddine

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Thanks so much Criff. Modes are usually a “put off” area for most would be musicians. You make it seem so easy and understandable in one single video.

  • Andy Finley

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Griff that is the first time anyone has explained about the different modes and about the major scale and made sense in thirty years of playing. Thanks Griff keep up the good work

  • Bruce Frazer (aka Doc Level)

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Griff–

    Excellent presentation! I never could fathom how The Dead or The Allman Brothers improvised so melodically until a young wizard / teacher explained the modes. I only wish students could understand that, if you learn these, the whole fingerboard opens up in any key you happen to be playing in! Great work, Griff!

  • Gary Moyer

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    I learned the modes back in the 1970’s but never did much with them. It would be nice to learn how to use them in songs.

    • Mike Goldblatt

      Reply Reply July 14, 2017

      Good video….questions…Are you in the key of G major? I thought starting on 3rd fret on low E string and going up from there was G MINOR scale.Also….when you start at the 10th fret you say it’s D mixolydian but aren’t you still in G?

      • Todd Knaster

        Reply Reply June 8, 2019

        Hi Mike, If I understand it correctly each mode starts on a different note of the major scale in whatever key you are in. So if the key is G, dorian is the 2nd mode ( 2nd position or box) starting on the 2nd note in the G major scale which is A. When you say you are playing A dorian you are playing the G major scale starting on the 2nd note/ degree or one whole step up from G which is A. Mixolydian is the 5th position/box or the 5th note of the G major scale. When you say you are playing D mixolydian you are playing the G major scale starting on the D note or the 5th note in the G major scale which of course is the 10th fret on the low E string. I am still trying to figure out if each mode is exactly the same notes or are some of the notes # or b. I hope I am not saying something inaccurate or confusing you more. Griff, please let us know if I am correct.
        Todd

  • Jim Angelo

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Wow! Just had a light bulb moment. I have read many things about the modes and get the concept but have never been able to put it together in any coherent way. I have even seen the patterns presented with other Greek names but they were still confusing to use. This presentation was the clearest and most usable explanation that I have seen. I really feel I can begin to use the modes for the first time (with lots of practice of course). Thanks again Griff for your incredible skill in imparting information and lessons to us. You are the best!

  • Bill

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    I like where you are going. Opens up a whole new way of looking at soloing for me. Along with the TAB, do you have a set of boxes like your “Major and Minor Blues Scale Boxes For Guitar”? I’d like to print it out and tape it to the wall in my office where I practice.
    Thanks.

  • Jim

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Thanks Griff;
    I always enjoy your videos, it’s almost like making a pilgrimage to a boutique music showroom.🤑
    Anyway, were never a subject that held much interest for me, my “scales” consisted of whatever notes seems to sound “right” together.
    Your description however, was simple enough (for me) to understand. Your explanation of modes was particularly enlightening. I had never noticed that the G and A scales you played were essentially the same!
    Thank you very much.
    Jim

  • donald

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    you’ve open up an area that i’v got no where in trying to understand untill i sore this vidio or lesson . i’v come away with a happier understanding and brighter way of going further in my guitar learning and playing now after seeing this . thank you ever so much

  • Wal

    Reply Reply July 14, 2017

    Here’s an interesting exercise. Listen to a bit of Griff’s noodling, any topic, then walk away. Cook dinner, read something… Eventually your in-the-head interpretation of the noodling will become an earworm of something you know well, and then you’ll know how old so-and-so did it. For me, that play-out turned into the Pretenders’ “Kid”…

    Try it out! Oh, and thanks as alway, Griff!

  • I wish you would demo some songs, besides twinkle twinkle little star, showing how to apply the major scale. I play the scale but I just don’t get the connection on what songs to use it. You have a video that you sing the lyrics to and show how to apply the scale from a long while back, I think you did maybe five songs, one was a Stevie Ray song. Please help with this if you can. Thank you, I really do appreciate all the videos and effort you put into teaching. I am a BGU member, etc.. Peace !!!

  • Jim Russell

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    thank’s griff

  • Nick

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    Thanks man awesome love it !!!

  • John

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    Wow,super great video can’t wait to see next one. Want to learn to apply it.best wishes

  • Dave Sinclair

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    wow I have been waiting for some one to explain this to me for years, spent so much time wondering if I need to know it or not , i can see now shit it wouldn’t hurt many thanks sincers \o.o/

  • JT

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    Thanks Griff. This is how I initially learned the modes and it def works. However, they way I was finally able to put these into practice was to this of a mode as a slight alteration of the major or minor scale. Maybe this will help those who are like me. I don’t think of the Dorian as the second mode, I think of it as a minor scale but with a major 6th. Or an even better example is Mixolydian: I don’t think of this as the 5th mode, I think of it as a major scale but with a minor 7th. Thinking of them this way helped me to incorporate them into box 1 and 2 right away without thinking what relative major scale they are. Rock On 🙂

  • Patrick D

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    music flavours, that’s what it is…. remember back when I was 16 learning and that is why I was so attracted to the dark drop d indian sounds, taking me back to great bands like vamp & Clarke Hutchinson, a certain Mr Mick Hutchinson, what a guitarist ! nice work griff

  • Jon

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    Thank you so much for this Griff. I’ve always thought “What are they talking about?” when Dorian, Myxolidian etc modes were mentioned, but you’ve made it so easy to understand. A true ‘Eureka’ moment!

  • Chris Price

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    Thanks for a fascinating video Griff. It just shows how infinitely subtle music is and how it bewitches our emotions to experience something different every time we listen. One question how did the scales or modes get their Greek names. Were the scales first discovered in BC Greece. Did they have fretted instruments. if not then thy had to know the musical spaces by ear.

  • Paublo

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    Listened and pieced together a lot from videos over past 2-3. Years but this video with the tabs Finally connected the neck of the guitars together With the keys. Break through lesson!!
    Thanks I can see a new window of understanding open up!
    Paublo

  • Pete Brown

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    Griff, this has been the best of many great videos. Thanks for clearly and simply explaining what has been up til now a somewhat confusing concept!

  • Ritchie

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    Love ya man. Great lesson.

  • Frankie

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    Thanks Griff , that’s brilliant !!! We can start to see the
    secrets of some Great guitar players ….

  • Tommy Teague

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    I think the light just came on . Thanks , Griff !!

  • Mike

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    In my 20s I had learned all the modes in all the keys and never understood how to make them sound like music. Crazy, right? Thirty-five years later, this one video opened my eyes and ears! Can’t thank you enough, Griff! Looking forward to seeing and hearing how you integrate modes with Pentatonic boxes.

  • Ray Jackson (UK)

    Reply Reply July 15, 2017

    Another great learning curve. It’s really interesting how many different tunes I could hear or relate to whilst you were playing those modes, shame about the titles of them. guess I’ll just give them numbers, as a lone player I have no need to impress myself with fancy names and titles. Nice one Griff, I look forward to getting these down to memory, as well as receiving the follow up downloads. Cheers. Ray (UK).

    • Mike

      Reply Reply July 25, 2017

      Time to revisit this again. I can play but most of my improvised solos are not really a concious theoretical application of scales or notes (other than the roots)….i just play what comes to me. Some people would call this a gift but to me its a curse. I know it would take me to the next level if i could spontaneously understand the “whys” and not just the “hows”. Ive had several people listen to my playing and says things like ” nice use of the Dorian mode” and i really have no idea what they are talking about. Be nice to be able to harness the concept and apply it on the fly…..

  • peter.

    Reply Reply July 16, 2017

    yes very nice griff it like adding colour to a painting yes it’s lovely griffin regards pete for Wales

  • Ish

    Reply Reply July 16, 2017

    Griff. I have to hand it to you. You are such a ray of sunshine when it comes to teaching music.
    These two lessons on the modes you sent out have answerd so much that was always on my mind.
    MELODIES….by Santana , satriani, Spanish guitar . How do they come up with such beautiful songs. Now I understand .
    Right now I feel like a light bulb with a dimmer switch . I’m a beginner wanna be guitar student learning from you. Just turned 71, but have played some music, mostly bass in my younger years.
    I just could not get these kinds of melodies from my blues scales. You have opened up a whole new world of music enjoyment in my life.
    And you are absolutely correct. As a musician, we owe it to ourselves to delve into these modes, even if down the road we find that it’s not our bag.
    I AM TOTALLY HOOKED . Thank you so much for devoting so much of your time to teach us what is in your head. Passing on to others what is in there is the greatest gift you can give someone. Thank you . God bless….
    Ish

  • John

    Reply Reply July 16, 2017

    Hey, Grif Thanks!

    The explanation you provide help making sense what these modes can do…You’ve given us another Key!
    I appreciate the PDFs and Jam track to play with all of these modes! It’s a great study..and it will send me to a new height of playing!
    Time to get busy…print it out and make it work!

  • rolf christophersen

    Reply Reply July 16, 2017

    Hi Griff, This subject is so fundamental and important. When I took piano and learned the spacing between tones, I was blown away by the realization that that framework includes taking care of all the sharps and flats, NO MATTER W SCALE NOTE YOU START ON. But, I still have a question- how do you train your fingers to chatter through the scale is fast on the fretboard and when do you decide to follow a string higher instead of across; the possibilities seem endless; thanks for these moments.

  • bryan bernas

    Reply Reply July 16, 2017

    Playing over relative chords I.e. phryigian over b minor chord will really show the color of that mode . Hope I spelled that correctly. Look forward to your tonal center video . Thanks again Griff.

  • Frank

    Reply Reply July 16, 2017

    Once again you blew my mind. Thanks

  • Nick

    Reply Reply July 16, 2017

    Awesome lesson. Filled in some holes!!!

  • James Lynn

    Reply Reply July 16, 2017

    This is an essential aspect of understanding how to play the guitar as opposed to just learning to play a song or lick. I only wish I had your instruction years ago- but it’s not too late and much appreciated ! Thanks, Griff.
    Jim

  • Midnight

    Reply Reply July 16, 2017

    Excellent!

  • John

    Reply Reply July 17, 2017

    I understand that each “mode” is simply the different scale notes that you begin and finish on, however does this mean that if you are in the key of G Major as in your example, but playing A Dorian, do you then use the A note rather than the G as your target note as your home or landing spot? Is that the whole point here?

  • Lars

    Reply Reply July 17, 2017

    Hi All!

    Great video, however when Griff playing over the backing track I still hear all the notes in G Ionian Mode since the chord progression is in the G Ionian mode. To fully understand the modes you need to learn these modes in the correct musical context. It all depends on the chords you use in the background.

  • RIck

    Reply Reply July 17, 2017

    Thanks Griff!
    Great way to explain it.

  • Chris Roper

    Reply Reply July 17, 2017

    About twenty years ago I was trying to learn to play tenor sax. As my teacher was jazz orientated he introduced “modal” improvisation. I must have been a budding guitar player then because, as you’ve observed, I glazed over. I wrote stuff down and went down the shed and blew the modes. The sax is still in the box! Strangely (or maybe not so strangely) your video on modes seems to make more sense. Perhaps because the scales (boxes) are easier to visualise in, for example, chart type diagrams (as with “your” boxes) using strings and frets down have an equal on sax fingering. Also, when you fret and play a note on a guitar, assuming correct tuning, what you play is what you get….not so with a reed and a mouth!! Maybe if I’d persevered, I could have been Gato Barber by now! We’ll never know. I will keep at it this time…..honest. Thanks for the different approach. Music, after all, is music.
    Just me noodling with words this time…..I’m off to dust off the tenor……neighbours beware! (Another problem with the sax, you can’t be quiet! That’s it….I’m going…..I’m going!!

  • jd

    Reply Reply July 17, 2017

    A GREAT LESSON TELL YOUR bud Bob i said hi thanks Grif Joe theshaqker-RBL

  • Michael Chappell

    Reply Reply July 18, 2017

    Hey Griff,
    Great lesson and even at my stage just at advanced beginner, I understood the structure of this lesson and have downloaded all the info..I look forward to diving into this in more depth when I progress to that level.. Even though I have purchased sometime ago the Classic Rock Guitar Unleashed Course.. All awesome.

    Michael-Sydney-Australia July 2017.

  • wdwomack

    Reply Reply July 18, 2017

    One question: The modes you just described are all in the key of G correct? And each mode follows the same pattern as the major scale in each key, so that if I was playing in the key of Bb I would have to use the same major scale as a Bb scale for each mode.

    Is that the idea here or not?

    WD

  • Michael Hechler

    Reply Reply July 18, 2017

    Thanks Teach ! great video and as always, theory making sense.

  • RIck

    Reply Reply July 19, 2017

    Is there an easy way to transpose for other keys than G?

  • Robin Chaster

    Reply Reply July 21, 2017

    As always great material. Thank you.

  • Joe Accardo

    Reply Reply July 22, 2017

    Best video lesson yet, it’s as if a light bulb went off. Possibilities are endless. Awesome lesson Griff thank you.

  • Paul EVE [aus]

    Reply Reply July 22, 2017

    Thanks Griff – you make it look easy – you have obviously done your homework and it pays off. Cheers

  • Chris Roper

    Reply Reply July 23, 2017

    If anyone needs an “aide memoire” (my memoire needs a lot of aide!) try this for the names of the modes:-

    I Don’t. Paint. Like Michael Angelo Lately.
    Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aolian Locrian

    Just remember th two modes beginning with “L” fall in reverse alphabetical order…..sorted!

    Now can we get on with the music?!

    Thanks Griff.

  • Lorne Hanson

    Reply Reply July 25, 2017

    Love your style of teaching, Griff! I’m still working through Blues Guitar Unleashed. I was able to improvise solos very quickly. Do you ever play any Frank Marino music?

  • Steve Mueller

    Reply Reply July 26, 2017

    Thank you, Griff! While “noodling”, I noticed each mode could be made to sound good over your root-G backing track BOTH when played at the starting position you show (i.e., Mixolydian Major starting at 6th string D) AND when playing the exact same pattern moved down to start at G). A pentatonic pattern can sound pleasing at both starting at G and at the Aeolian mode start of nut or 12-string E. This ability for a mode pattern to sound great at two places (it’s degree off the scale as well as at the scale root) was a new learning for me. Thanks again!

  • Bob Lorbeski

    Reply Reply November 25, 2017

    Thanks Griff for taking the time to share your knowledge and expertise. Another great session.

  • Trevor from Oz

    Reply Reply November 26, 2017

    Wow ….. that was a lightglobe moment, thankyou.

    I can now see through the fog.

  • luther

    Reply Reply January 18, 2019

    hey Griff , very good . thank you.

  • William

    Reply Reply January 18, 2019

    A keyboard view of the same process which may (or not) be helpful:

    Play all of the white keys from C to C and back down the C. That is the Ionian (Major) mode
    Play all of the white keys from D to D and back down the D. That is the Dorian mode
    Play all of the white keys from E to E and back down the E. That is the Phrygian mode
    Play all of the white keys from F to F and back down the F That is the Lydian mode
    Play all of the white keys from G to G and back down the G. That is the Mixolydian mode
    Play all of the white keys from A to A and back down the A. That is the Aeolian mode
    Play all of the white keys from B to B and back down the B. That is the Locrian mode

    A memory aid to remember the order of the modes starting with Ionian:

    Ionian In
    Dorian Denver
    Phrygian People
    Lydian Like
    Mixolydian Music
    Aeolian After
    Locrian Lunch

    Sorry. I could not resist!

    • Scott

      Reply Reply May 18, 2020

      William,
      It does help! Thanks!

  • Ken

    Reply Reply February 7, 2019

    Very cool video Griff, looking forward to the next one. Brought back memories of my guitar teacher I had back in the 60’s when I was a kid, he was all about modes, scales and counting. No tab back then, I would go home and practice till my fingers would get sore. Your students are very fortunate to have a teacher that explains things the way you do and don’t hit you with a baton when you make a mistake. Yes he did that, pick long and prosper Griff.

  • Alex

    Reply Reply February 10, 2019

    Truly nice lesson, Griff. I think you about presented that better than I have heard from anyone else in the past, and I’ve heard my share of explanations. Thank you for that. I only recently started your BLues Guitar Unleashed program, but I am looking forward to a lot more insightful teaching. For anyone doubting the price point of your courses, I can only say, it’s about the fairest price out there for such quality instruction, stop procrastinating like I did and put yourself into the hands of Griffs talent fro teaching.

  • David

    Reply Reply February 12, 2019

    Good stuff Griff keep it coming

  • Bob

    Reply Reply February 13, 2019

    Excellent! Love your way of teaching!

  • Antonio

    Reply Reply March 9, 2019

    I always thought the Modes were kinda hard to under stand and how to apply. Your teaching is very good and I understand better now. Thank You keep it up.

  • Rod Winterhalder

    Reply Reply March 9, 2019

    Hi Griff, I read about modes a long time ago but could not understand them. You have made the concept so simple. A brilliant lesson. Thank you.

  • Paul Rumpf

    Reply Reply March 10, 2019

    Thanks that lesson gave me a lightbulb moment totally an aha revelation thanks

  • R

    Reply Reply March 15, 2019

    Maybe Griff said it and I missed it…seeing that modes are all from the same major scale notes..ie…play a major scale for Ionian and then start on each successive note for the modes…but for me the easiest way to play all the modes was to stay in the same position playing the same major scale pattern and start on the root of each of the modes. The other way being to learn how to play every mode in the five different patterns.

  • R

    Reply Reply March 15, 2019

    Sorry, he says it more than once…all G major scale but starting on different steps.

  • Ben

    Reply Reply March 15, 2019

    Unless I’m missing something, “R” has it right. Using any major scale, the modes are created by simply using the same notes, but sequentially starting on a different note. If I’m right, then any other attempted explanation just complicates the concept.

  • Balló Tamás

    Reply Reply March 22, 2019

    I normally practice these scales just like you showed now.

  • Mike

    Reply Reply March 27, 2019

    Thanks,
    Great explanation.

  • Tom

    Reply Reply June 22, 2019

    Very expansive. I’m chewing through your Jam Alone program but working on two Grateful Dead songs, Stella Blue and So Many Roads. Though not in blues form, they carry that feeling for me. Ballad / lament more accurately. I hope I can put the modes on them to get those “in between notes” to come forward. Thanks again. Most timely!

  • Robert Chisnall

    Reply Reply July 12, 2019

    Griff

    Great stuff! You always do a great job
    With your instruction. Thanks for the free
    Videos. I currently am a member of the
    “Blues guitar unleashed course” . Again
    You are a excellent instructor. Keep me in the loop

  • Christopher

    Reply Reply September 10, 2019

    A MUST LEARN! Thanks, Griff

  • Colin Ray

    Reply Reply September 16, 2019

    Hi Griff
    Brilliant lesson, i had looked at modes but never actually understood them or how to use them. Cool stuff. thanks again.
    Colin.

  • Brian

    Reply Reply September 16, 2019

    Hey Griff:

    Can you please explain why, if you’re playing B Phrygian, for example, you moved to the B note on the low E string and started from there, rather than simply start with the B note in the “G major box?”

    It seems much more complicated to remember a different intervals, i.e., starting on the B low E string and getting the intervals right, vs. staying in the G major box and remembering to focus on the tonal center of B Phrygian.

    Or, If I want to play E Phrygian, all I have to remember is E is the third note of C major, and simply use the C major box, but make E my tonal center. I don’t need to think of E and remember the first interval is just a half step.

    I guess what I am asking is if there is a downside to this method?

    I imagine that it’s best to know all the modes, i.e., intervals, without a second thought, but it seems rather daunting to remember all of this in different keys, when, again, I can just remember say, the five (or seven) major scale boxes, and start with a different tonal center.

    Thanks Giff. You rock.

  • John

    Reply Reply February 6, 2020

    Hey Griff,
    Thanks for a great lesson, I’ve been laid up from surgery and have lots of guitar time, this makes a lot of sense to me, also going through the guitar unleashed 2.0 again because I’m one of those counting challenged people, I think it’s cause I play mostly by myself, 65 years young and still trying
    John

    • Dave Kirby

      Reply Reply May 12, 2020

      62 here, and I’m with ya. Once I start trying to remember all the mode names, I get lost and frustrated. I get that each mode is basically the sequence of notes within a scale, but putting that into practice on a jam track (or, yikes, with a band in front of actual listening people), all of that kinda goes out the window.

      On blues numbers, I just try to remember where my root, flatted 3rd, 5th and flatted 7th is at all times, and work the solo phrases to start/end on the root (or fifth) note of the chord at the time. I keep telling myself that the mode framework will sort of reveal itself through that method – rather than learning modes as a standalone discipline.

      Of course, if I was so smart, I wouldn’t be 62 and still a hack. 🙂

  • Gavan Kinna

    Reply Reply March 21, 2020

    Hello from down under.
    Thanks for an other great lesson. I was wondering if it was possible for you to do a blog on the style and technique of Steve Hunter and Dick Wagner’s guitar dance in Lou Reeds ‘Oh Jim’ from the live 1975 album. I just cant get this out of my head and have been re listening to it daily of late. Its totally the best piece of uitar work I’ve ever heard and feel there is a pattern or formula there that could be dissected. And, you being ‘my man’ might be able to shed some ‘white light’ on the subject. Love ya work. Gav

  • Michael Adams

    Reply Reply April 23, 2020

    Thank you very much for a clear approach to the Greek modes. Really very good – thanks again!

  • Rick Hodge

    Reply Reply April 26, 2020

    I’ve shyed away from modes for years but you have opened the door in one lesson great stuff,

  • Mike

    Reply Reply April 27, 2020

    Great video. This is exactly what I am trying to learn right now–trying to memorize these diatonic scales up and dine the fretboard in every key. The patterns are all the same, it’s just WHERE you start relative to the song key. I hope your next video addresses that. If not, is there a course that teaches how to easily know what key to improvise in in a jam setting where you don’t know the key? Thanks Griff!!

  • John R Arbes

    Reply Reply April 27, 2020

    This finally cleared it all up for me and tied up the loose ends. Thank you.

  • Joe sardina

    Reply Reply May 6, 2020

    Thanks I’ve been playing or should I say fiddling with the guitar for years but since you my understanding and playing has really turned around.

    Keep doing what your doing, Joe

  • Scott

    Reply Reply May 18, 2020

    Griff,
    Thank you! It was all greek to me, but now I understand the concept and it’s really easy.
    Thank you.

  • tony

    Reply Reply July 15, 2020

    Okay this is like turning a rock over . Meaning that after processing the minor this is the other side of things. This takes back to my teens . Learning from scratch all these different scales that seemed to not make any sense . Speaking of the modes I had no idea what they were just a name to me. I am sure the old book I used as a teen will come out again and all the stuff You talked about will be there in black and white. All of it will make more sense Thanks for the lesson .

  • Mike

    Reply Reply July 15, 2020

    Excellent explanation of modes. Same notes… different starting and ending points. One thing that confuses me Griff is, I’ve heard you say many times that it is not a good idea to use the relative minor scale as a variant of the #1 pentatonic scale position. That seems like a contradiction to me which… usually means that I’m misunderstanding the point or confused about something basic. What am I missing? Is that suggestion just regarding blues or just relevant to pentatonics?

  • Kim Alexander

    Reply Reply August 15, 2020

    You rock as always ! Thank’s Griff from Les Paul’s hometown.Hope this finds you & the family happy & healthy today.Respectfully,Kim

  • C. LeMieux

    Reply Reply September 14, 2020

    Thank you Griff,
    I think I can manage the first scale, but as a beginner, the rest elude me. I have taken note though, and will re-watch these to get the message. I am always grateful for your lessons.
    thanks

  • Brad gross

    Reply Reply October 22, 2020

    Just as a complete aside, great T shirt. That was a great store and you could spend many hours there and never know who was going to be playing next to you. That used to be a musicians dream street as well. Spent all of my lunch hours there decades ago.

    Another terrific lesson, thanks

  • Don Craig

    Reply Reply October 28, 2020

    Interesting. I see that I can start that do-re-mi pattern on any fret. Will experiment with this, thanks.

  • Marek

    Reply Reply January 22, 2021

    Griff, as always your instructions are impeccable. You have opened up the constellation of notes for me. Thank you. It will be a great help in continual learning the skill and add to the song writing palette.

  • Walt

    Reply Reply March 22, 2021

    I don’t know why “Modes” seem so damned complicated when other folks teach them!!

    Most guitarists run away because of it.

    I came up with my own nemonic device for remembering the names of the modes in order.

    I Do Prefer Lydia Mix Ales Locally

    I = Ionian Do = Dorian Prefer = Phrygian
    Lydia = Lydian Mix = Mixolydian Ales = Aeolian
    Locally = Locrian

    Now that that’s out of the way, I’d like to say that your lesson was thoughtfully put together and the most understandable I’ve seen on the subject!

    Thanks!

    Walt

  • Pete Fegredo

    Reply Reply May 14, 2021

    Hi Griff,
    First class lesson from a wonderful teacher. I find this explanation very interesting and you do it so well for all Fans/Students here. This alone is priceless.
    Thank you very much for being ever patient with your instruction for guys like myself who are not probably as skilled as some of the Guitar Players here.

  • Bob Kizik

    Reply Reply September 9, 2021

    This is fun stuff Griff! I’ve come across these modes when I used to hack around on my own but never really understood the theory behind them and the connections they have to each other. Looking forward to next video

  • Jim Tate

    Reply Reply October 31, 2021

    I have a B.A. in Music Ed. (’71) and a M.M. (’77) in music theory/composition. I sure wish you had been my music theory prof back then.
    My first day of music theory class, the professor said to “Bring theory paper tomorrow.” I had no idea what that was. I had a lot to learn.
    Music theory was taught as some dark, secret thing that you could only learn if you had been taking piano lessons from birth.

    You have excellent pedagogy. Clear explanation of music theory in an applicable way. Thank you for your knowledge and the ability to explain it to anyone . . . musicians or not. When I taught theory, I tried to make it understandable to anyone who took the class. I wish I had had your instruction before I became a teacher. But, you were not even born then!

  • Mike

    Reply Reply December 22, 2021

    The Noodle mode is the only one I can remember the name of.

  • Mike

    Reply Reply December 22, 2021

    Noodlidian.

  • David Malecki

    Reply Reply December 22, 2021

    Glad you sent this again Griff. We all need this stuff, just to have an ‘edge’ if nothing else. I’m sure that as we go along in our progress, we will sooner or later find a need for this stuff. I think it needs to be studied extensively to some degree and tucked away for use as we continue to jam and move up the musical ladder.
    12/22/21

  • bluesyruss

    Reply Reply December 24, 2021

    Great video !! The only thing missing is how these modes make music “feel”, you touched on it with calling the major scale “happy”
    Thanks brother !!

  • John Gould

    Reply Reply December 30, 2021

    Griff,

    Great lesson, but one thing would clarify modes for me. In the lesson, you moved up the low e-string to play each mode and you played the GM scale simply starting on a different note. Couldn’t you in effect do the same thing by staying in that first pattern (G on the third fret of the low E string) and starting and stopping on whatever note in the GM scale was appropriate for the mode you wished to play in? I know one wouldn’t actually play there since it would be cumbersome and limiting, but it would clear things up for me if I was correct that all that’s really necessary to play a mode is to stay in the original key and scale, but use a different note of that scale as the root note. If so, modes really are rather simple.

    Thanks,
    John

  • Mick Griffin

    Reply Reply January 26, 2022

    Griff this is the best explanation I’ve seen. I’ve been playing in bands for years and knew nothing of modes. Thank you so much 😎🎸

  • Russell

    Reply Reply May 12, 2022

    The flourish at the close was Gorgeous. Thanks for the excellent lesson

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